With political patronage, absenteeism is more likely
Absenteeism in the public sector is a major problem for developing countries. But reforms to increase attendance have often failed. In a piece for Vox EU, researchers inlcuding CDPR affiliates Saad Gulzar and Yasir Khan identify the reason why: political patronage. Using data from Punjab's health sector, they show that higher rates of absenteeism are more likely to occur where one political party was elected by a large margin. They also provide evidence that monitoring attendance with smartphones reduces absenteeism.
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